Chinese calendar system is the oldest continuous timekeeping system
in existence. It is a combined solar/lunar calendar, meaning that
days are measured by the sun, but months are measured by the moon.
The approximately 29.5 days between new moons constitutes one Chinese
calendar month. Since the lunar cycle does not correspond neatly
with the earth's annual cycle around the sun, the beginning of the
Chinese New Year can fall anywhere between late January and the
middle of February on the Gregorian calendar. This year, the new
moon on January 29, 2006 marked the first day of the 4703rd Chinese
year. Under the Chinese system, each year is designated by one of
twelve animals -- Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse,
Sheep, Monkey, Rooster, Dog, and Boar. The upcoming year will be
the year of the Dog. A complete cycle of 12 calendar years constitutes
a Great Year. Five great years, (60 calendar years) represents one
Cycle, and 60 Cycles (3,600 years) makes an Epoch.
Everything in nature, from the revolution of the earth around the
sun, to the beat of the heart of every living creature follows a
cycle - a rise and fall, an ebb and flow. It is therefore reasonable
to believe that the affairs of men also follow certain cycles, ebbing
and flowing with the tides of time. Specific places, names and faces
may change, but the underlying stories of the social cycles remain.
The idea of such a rhythm is captured graphically
by the Chinese yin-yang, which illustrates both the interdependence
of, and struggle between opposites. It is not true that they are
always perfectly balanced - the yin-yang is a snapshot that captures
the balance at a given moment in time. However, at other times darkness
can be so pervasive as to nearly blind the light. Likewise, at times
the light can be so pervasive as to overwhelm darkness. At the root
of this dynamic balance is the idea that the seed of the opposite
- be it light or dark - is always present, awaiting its chance to
grow. Once an extreme is met, the tide turns once again.
I am not an expert in Chinese Astrology, but like
with Chinese medicine, acupuncture and meditation, I am certain
of the truth and wisdom contained in this ancient body of knowledge.
As China and the West move closer though economic ties, cultural
understanding will also increase, which should most certainly be
beneficial to both societies. Rather than try to characterize what
a dog year "should" be like, I would like to take a look back at
past Dog years to see what kinds of common themes, if any, may emerge.
You might also think of it as a search for a twelve-year cycle.
Beginning in the depths of the Great Depression, with 1934, subsequent
Dog years include 1946, 1958, 1970, 1982, 1994 and of course this
The Chinese have traditionally considered anyone who lived 60 years
to be very wise, since they have lived through and seen one complete
Cycle. But since the cycle of human events is determined by human
actions, and since human life spans have elongated drastically in
the last century, it is plausible that traditional long-wave cycle
lengths may also be increasing. Because the Great Depression was
one of the most fascinating periods of the last century, and because
current times bear a certain resemblance to that era, I will begin
72 years ago with the Dog year of 1934.
2. Past Dog Years
1934 - From Depression to War; An Environmental Disaster
While the bottom of the Great Depression had passed, 1934 was no
economic or social picnic. The previous year, 1933, had seen the
worst of the banking panics, the stock market bottom, and the confiscation
of gold from private US citizens - since the yellow metal served
as viable completion to the US dollar - by FDR. It was hard times
in the US, and around the world. Germany, under Hitler, continued
on its steady march toward totalitarianism, consolidated corporate
power and war. China was on the brink of civil war, and the Communists
began their Long March, covering 8,000 km (4,960 miles) in 370 days
to escape the pursuit of the Kuomintang. The Communists would ultimately
prove victorious, exiling the Kuomintang to the tiny nearby island
Instead of hurricanes or global warming, drought was America's environmental
disaster of the early 1930's. For much of the 1930's the US struggled
as the Great Plains turned to desert. Once fertile topsoil turned
to powder, that blew across the country, producing a filth and grime
that was difficult to wash out of fabric and clean out of buildings.
It was a miserable time to be a farmer. Once the topsoil was gone,
the underlying layer of clay was unsuitable for crops, leading to
a wave of farm failures and mortgage foreclosures. This only contributed
to the malaise of the Depression. You could say it was just the
weather, but in reality it was a man made disaster caused by overfarming
and poor stewardship of the land. May 1934 saw one of the worst
dust storms of the era. The displaced "Okies" and "Arkies" moved
west, looking for a better life in the West. John Steinbeck dramatized
the plight of the displaced in the popular novels The
Grapes of Wrath and Of
Mice and Men.
1946 - The Relief of War's End
Nothing happens in a vacuum. From the eye of history, all events
are the reaction or response to what has come before. 1946 marked
the official end to hostilities in World War II (Truman signed the
documents ending WWII in '46). The bloody battle of war was something
that no one was interested in repeating, and as a result, the United
Nations held its first meeting, and the same year the United Nation's
Children's Fund (UNICEF) was founded to give long-term humanitarian
and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing
countries. 1946 was a year of optimism that war was over, and that
by working together, we could prevent the horrors from ever revisiting
humanity again. But unfortunately, it was not to be.
The seeds of war were being planted in SE Asia, as Ho Chi Minh was
elected President of North Vietnam. US testing of nuclear weapons
continued. The first underwater test of the atomic bomb was undertaken
at Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. Every year since has seen
some kind of war, somewhere on the planet. But good times had begun
for the average American a long domestic peace and prosperity ensued.
The Flamingo Hotel opened in Las Vegas.
1958 - Nuclear Posturing during the Cold War, Stars are
Born, and a Recession
The good economic times for the US continued to roll on, in spite
of a recession in '58. Public opposition continued to build towards
nuclear weapons. Bertrand Russell launched the Campaign for Nuclear
Disarmament, and 9235 scientists publish a plea to stop nuclear
bomb tests. It is rarely that the people of a nation - any nation
- want war. But it is also rare for governments to listen to the
please, regardless of how democratic (or undemocratic) they claim
to be. The Cold War was in full swing, and the USSR continued with
its nuclear testing. In March, A US B-47 bomber accidentally
dropped an A-bomb in Mars Bluff, South Carolina. Luckily, it
didn't go off!
Prince, Madonna and Michael Jackson - the Big Three
of 1980's pop music - were all born in 1958. Today Madonna has a
best selling album at the top of the charts, having nimbly managed
to keep up with the changing times. Prince has stayed true to his
personal artistic ideals, even changing his name to an unpronounceable
symbol for a time in order to make a moral and artistic statement.
Few people got it, and he alienated many because of it. But he remained
true to himself. And poor Michael Jackson. He's been to the top,
was the King of Pop, only to become a true American tragedy. The
moral of the story: People and things morph and change in unpredictable
ways. And while you can get to the top, once there you may discover
that there are more important things in life.
THE SPOKESMEN for US capitalism call it
a "recession" or "deflation," a "rolling adjustment," a "shakeout"
or a "levelling off." President Eisenhower soothingly describes
it as "a breather." But all such comforting appellations cannot
lend brighter tints to the bleak picture or conjure away the facts.
The downward movement is operating with increasing force and the
elements of serious crisis are gathering within the weakened national
economy. …By the end of 1957 it was widely conceded that the business
slowdown was swifter, sharper and cutting deeper than had been anticipated.
The production index fell to 136 from its peak of 147 in December
1956. Stock-market prices came tumbling down, recording the biggest
decline since 1931. The number of unemployed climbed steeply upward…
No matter the year, recessions are always the
same in at least one regard: People don't like them.
1970 - The Musical Lights dim; Wars and
Rumors of Wars; Turmoil and Recession
The first year of the 70's was a year of turmoil.
It was the year the music of the 60's died: The Beatles gave official
word that they had disbanded. Janis Joplin and Jimi Hendrix went
and started "that club" of young, lost musicians to die at the age
of 27 from drug overdoses. Jim Morrison of the Doors would join
them in '71, and Kurt Cobain 24 years later in the dog year of '94.
In April, the U.S. expanded the unpopular war in Vietnam and invaded
neighboring Cambodia. Massive antiwar protests continued in the
U.S., and in Ohio, four students were shot and killed at Kent State
University, and nine others wounded at an anti-war demonstration.
Congress gave Nixon the authority to sell arms to Israel, planting
more seeds of resentment in the Middle East.
Salvador Allende, a Marxist, won the democratic election for president
of Chile, in spite of massive CIA efforts to defeat him. Nixon feared
Chile might become "another Cuba", and initiated plans to work with
insurgent elements within Chile to overthrow Allende in a coup.
The US would go on to impose economic sanctions against Chile, and
ultimately aid in the ouster of the democratically elected Allende
by dictator Augusto Pinochet in 1973. Another seed in the current
South American blowback had been planted. In Japan, world famous
author Yukio Mishima attempted a bizarre coup in Japan, and committed
ritual suicide with a samurai sword after his attempt failed. Shock
and disbelief were the watchwords of the day.
On a brighter note, humans began to realize the importance of our
environment. The first Earth Day was celebrated in 1970, and the
US Environmental Protection Agency was created. Once again, the
big economic news was recession, which began in the 4th
Quarter of 1969 and lasted to the 4th Quarter of 1970:
There was a sharp tightening of fiscal and
monetary policies across the OECD in 1968 and 1969, leading to a
mild recession between 1969 and 1971. This recession was rather
more marked in the USA and Japan than in Europe. It did little to
suppress inflation, being followed quickly by a 'mini-boom' in 1972-3.
This synchronized upswing was largely due to the large increase
in international liquidity that followed the weakness of the dollar
and the Smithsonian Agreement in December 1971, and the fact that
an unusually large number of elections were scheduled in 1972-3.
1982 - Severe Recession - Out with the
Old, in with the New
In fact, the "mild" recession of 1970 was a precursor to
a decade of inflation, stagnation, recession and malaise.
1982 was also a year of severe recession for the US:
When, in August 1981, Reagan signed his Recovery Act into law
at Rancho del Cielo, his Santa Barbara ranch, he promised to
find additional cuts to balance the budget, which had a projected
deficit of $80 billion -- the largest, to that date, in U.S.
history. That fall, the economy took a turn for the worse. To
fight inflation, running at a rate of 14 percent per year, the
Federal Reserve Board had increased interest rates. Recession
was the inevitable result. Blue-collar workers who had largely
supported Reagan were hard hit, as many lost their jobs.
The United States was experiencing its worst recession since
the Great Depression, with conditions frighteningly reminiscent
of those 50 years earlier. By November 1982, unemployment reached
nine million, the highest rate since the Depression; 17,000
businesses failed, the second highest number since 1933; farmers
lost their land; and many sick, elderly, and poor became homeless.
The country lived through the recession for a full year before
Reagan finally admitted publicly that the economy was in trouble.
His budget cuts, which hurt the poor, and his tax cuts, which
favored the rich, combined with the hardships of a recession,
spawned the belief that Reagan was insensitive to his people's
needs. (Although it was a 25% across-the-board tax cut, those
people in the higher income brackets benefited the most.)
As economic hardship hit American homes, Reagan's approval rating
hit rock bottom. In January 1983, it was estimated at a dismal
35 percent. Having failed in his promise to deliver economic
prosperity, Reagan's reelection in 1984 seemed unlikely.
With a failing economy, hopes for a balanced budget vanished.
Even David Stockman, Reagan's Budget Director and an advocate
of supply side economics, fearing future deficits "as high as
$200 billion," urged the president to cut taxes.
While Reagan finally agreed to a moderate tax increase on businesses,
he steadfastly refused to raise income taxes or cut defense
spending, despite a growing negative sentiment toward the buildup.
In January 1983, with his approval rating at an all-time low,
the economy slowly began to right itself. Unemployment, as high
as ten percent in 1982, had improved enough by 1984 for his
popularity to be restored, and by the November presidential
election, it was hard to believe that a second term was ever
other notable events of '82: The commercial breakup of AT&T. The
US embargo of Libyan oil imports for Libya's support of terrorist
organizations (imagine the luxury of having the option to use the
oil weapon, rather than fear it being used against us) An event
that characterized the new social malaise of America, the Tylenol
scare panicked the nation as seven people died after ingesting Tylenol
capsules laced with potassium cyanide. The event lead to the tamper-proof
packaging we have on all products today.
The computer era was officially upon us, as Time Magazine named
"The Computer" its man of the year. And lest we forget, 1982 was
the year that started the longest bull market in American history,
leading to an 11x increase in the Dow Jones Industrial Average,
from under 1,000 to over 11,000.
1994 - The Great Bond Massacre
The North American Free Trade Agreement was signed, and thus began
the "giant sucking sound" of jobs rushing out of the US that Ross
Perot warned of during his failed presidential bid in 1992. In a
tiny victory for the anti nuclear weapons crowd, the US and Russia
agreed to stop the pre-programmed pointing of nuclear weapons at
one another by signing the Kremlin Accords. Kurt Cobain, lead singer
of the Seattle group Nirvana went and "joined that club" that Hendrix
& Joplin started in the dog year of 1970. Progress marches on: Nelson
Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa's first black president.
Television reaches new all time lows with the live broadcast of
OJ Simpson's "White Bronco" chase, and the complete domination of
the news by the OJ Simpson murder trial. Ken Star's Whitewater investigation
begins, which will ultimately lead to the impeachment of the President.
Unlike the Dog years of 1934, 1958, 1970 and
1982, the year 1994 saw no economic recession. However, it was the
year of "The
Great Bond Massacre:"
In January 1994, the 34th month of economic
expansion, bond yields were historically low and inflation seemed
negligible: Wages were going nowhere, and companies dared not raise
prices. But within seven short months of that promising start, something
fairly unusual happened: 1994 became the year of the worst bond
market loss in history. As the Federal Reserve began nudging short-term
interest rates higher in early February, the bond market inflicted
heavy damage on financial companies, hedge funds, and bond mutual
funds. In a year of low inflation, bondholders suffered more than
$1 trillion in losses.
2006 - Parallels to Previous Dog Years
Which brings us to today. This is where I turn it over to you, dear
readers. What did you notice? What did I miss? What kind of significant
events will mark the year 2006? Which year will 2006 be most similar
to, or different from? Post
your comments here.
I'll be working on my own version of the parallels I see this week.
If you'd like to be notified as soon as it is up on the website,